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Matter and Method of Planning in Business Organization
Planning is an indispensable function of management. This paper covers a discussion of the need for planning, a planning model, phases of organizational planning, stages in policy development and other similar topics.
|language || ||english
|wordcount || ||7392 (cca 21 pages)
|contextual quality || ||N/A
|language level || ||N/A
|price || ||free
|sources || ||7
Table of contents
The Need for planning 1
Environmental Changes 2
Survival or Failure of Individual Enterprises 4
A Planning Model 4
Definition of Planning 6
Phases of Organizational Planning 7
Stages in Policy Development 12
Operationalizing the Planning Model 14
Preview of the essay: Matter and Method of Planning in Business Organization
MATTER AND METHOD OF PLANNING IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS Planning has long been recognized as one of the basic functions of management. The first manager was, by his nature, a planner, for he made decisions governing the future of his undertaking. Yet, paradoxically, planning is one of the least developed aspects of the management. It is one of the least clearly defined subjects in the field, one in which conceptualizing or generalizing has made the least progress. As a result, it is one of the most difficult topics to discuss.
At the outset, it is necessary to state at once that planning is concerned with at least two major elements: (
1) the future and
2) the relation between ends and means – between goals and ways of achieving those goals.
Some writer’s use the terms planning and decision making as synonyms. Planning are indeed decisions, but they are broad, more significant decisions oriented toward future objectives. It is unnecessary to draw a precise line between planning and other kinds of decisions, but it ...
... an executive must narrow the range of attention of each person in the organization to focus on definite and measurable results that have a clear meaning for each individual. Each part of an organization can contribute toward companywide objectives if it clearly sees its own specific goals and can determine, through measurement, how well it is doing. The selection of the proper factors to be measured is important; what is measured is what receives attention.
The overall objectives of a firm generally are established by top management; yet it is desirable for each subordinate manager to have a voice setting his own objectives. If each member understands the relationship of his own organizational objectives to the boarder objectives of the company, he will need to participate in the goal-setting process. If he is involved in establishing his objectives, he will feel, once they are set, that the objectives are proper and will strive in a joint effort toward the recognized organizational objectives.
Objectives may be ideals or realistic expectations. Whether the objective is idealistic, it should be stated in terms of definite results. “Reduce costs” sounds fine, but it lacks precision. Even if the manager is conscientious and strives toward this vague objective, he never knows whether he has reached “the objective.” “Produce at costs 10 percent less last year” is better because it states the specific results desired.
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