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Pharmacognosy - the study of crude drugs obtained from plants, animals and mineral

Pharmacognosy is the study of crude drugs obtained from plants, animals and mineral kingdom and their constituents. Even though science of Pharmacognosy is practiced since a very early period, the term Pharmacognosy was first used by C.A. SEYDLER, a German Scientist, in 1865 in his book Analecta Pharmacognostica. It is derived from two Latin words Pharmakon, “a drug” and gignosco, “to acquire knowledge of”. It means knowledge or science of drugs.

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Preview of the essay: Pharmacognosy - the study of crude drugs obtained from plants, animals and mineral

Pharmacognosy has been basically evolved as an applied science pertains to the study of all types of drugs of natural origin; however its subject matter is directed towards the modern allopathic medicine. During the course of developments, many civilizations have raised and perished but the systems of medicines developed by them in various parts of the world are still practiced and are also popular as the alternative systems of medicine. These are the alternative systems in the sense that modern allopathic system has been globally acclaimed as the principle systems of medicine, and so all the other systems prevalent and practiced in various part of the world are supposed to be alternative systems. The philosophy and the basic principles of these so called alternative systems might differ significantly from each but the fact can not be derived that these systems ...

... methods of evaluation. MESM exhibited potent antioxidant activity by invitro assay like DPPH and FRAP which is further corroborated by evaluation of GSH and decrease in malondialdhyde level and reduced calcium ion levels in nerve tissue homogenate of the MESM treated animals. •         Acute oral toxicity study reveals that methanolic leaf extract of this drug was considered to be safe at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg b.w in rat. •         MESM treatment at 200mg/kg produces significantly attenuated the acrylamide intoxicated behavioral, biochemical and histopathologyical changes. These effects may be due to the presence of antioxidant phytoconstituents like flavonoids and tannin. Quantitative estimation of MESM for total phenolic content, tannin and flavonoids revealed that this extract posses very high concentration of phenolic phytoconstituents like tannins and flavonoids. Hence the neuroprotective effects of MESM for acrylamide induced painful neuropathy may be due to the presence of flavonoids and tannins by its antioxidant activity. Hence it is suggested that the active principle responsible for the treatment of painful neuropathy may be isolated and evaluated for future studies.      
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