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Exploring Models Of Interactivity From Multiple Research Traditions: Users, Documents, And Systems

This paper has extensively explored the models of interactivity from multiple research traditions i.e. users, documents and systems through looking at the new media interactivity, traditions of interactivity, User-to-User Interactivity , Explorations of Human-Technology Interfaces e.t.c

language english
wordcount 9170 (cca 26 pages)
contextual quality N/A
language level N/A
price free
sources 208
Table of contents

Introduction 3
New Media and Interactvity 4
New Media 4
Interactive Features 7
Perceived Interactivity 7
Interactive Exchange 8
Multi-dimensional Perspectives 9
Three Traditions of Interactivity 11
User-to-User Interaction 11
Interpersonal Interaction 12
Symbolic Interaction 12
Social Interaction 13
Interaction as Feedback 14
User-to-User Interaction in New Media 15
Direction of Communication 16
Control 18
A Proposed Model for User-to-User Interactivity 18
User-to-Documents Interactivity 19
Para-social Interaction 20
Creating Content 21
Interacting with Old Media 22
Interacting with New Media 23
A Proposed Model for User-to-Documents Interactivity 25
User-to-System Interactivity 26
Early Explorations of Human-Technology Interfaces 27
Media Richness and Social Presence 28
The Human-Computer Equation 30
A Proposed Model for User-to-System Interactivity 32
fUTURE Directions 33
Figures 35
References 38

Preview of the essay: Exploring Models Of Interactivity From Multiple Research Traditions: Users, Documents, And Systems

Interactivity. We ‘know it when we see it,’ but what is it? When asked to define the term, many individuals – even scholars of new media – may feel stumped. Rafaeli (1988: 110) noted some of the common conceptions about interactivity in the mid-1980s:
Interactivity is generally assumed to be a natural attribute of face-to-face conversation, but it has been proposed to occur in mediated communication settings as well. For example, interactivity is also one of the defining characteristics of two-way cable systems, electronic text systems, and some programming work as in interactive video games. Interactivity is present in the operation of traditional media, too. The phenomena of letters to the editor, talk shows on radio and television, listener participation in programs, and in programming are all characterized by interactivity.
In the early 1990s, use of the term ‘interactivity’ exploded in the popular, trade, and scholarly press (McMillan, 1999). Researchers are actively engaged in scholarship that explores how people interact through media, the nature of interactive content ...

... based in the user-to-user literature while studies of interactive fiction are probably centered in user-to-documents literature and studies involving virtual reality center on user-to-system issues. However, these classifications should not be viewed as either mutually exclusive or all-inclusive. For example, virtual reality studies need to incorporate human communication factors from the user-to-user model and content creators who are considering how users interact with documents also need to address interface issues from the user-to-system model. And some forms of interactivity and new media may not fit into any of these categories at all.
In sum, when approaching interactivity at the surface level we may be able to ‘know it when we see it.’ But we can understand it better if we recognize that it is a multi-faceted concept that resides in the users, the documents, and the systems that facilitate interactive communication.
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Humanistic Studies




Information Technologies


Humanistic Studies
Princess R.

Very intriguing and yet informative in its entirety.

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