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REPELLENCE ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF LONICERA SP AGAINST ANOPHELES GAMBIAE MOSQUITOES
The study aims at extraction, testing if the extracts offer any activity and if so drawing a comparison with a synthetic repellent like DEET and running the extracts through a GC-MS to determine the fractions present in the lonicera sp extracts.
|language || ||english
|wordcount || ||4285 (cca 12 pages)
|contextual quality || ||N/A
|language level || ||N/A
|price || ||free
|sources || ||18
Table of contents
1 INTRODUCTION 3
1.1 Background 3
1.2 Problem statement justification 5
1.3 Hypothesis 6
1.4 Objectives of study 6
1.4.1 General objective 6
1.4.2 Specific objectives 6
1.5 Significance and anticipated output 7
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 LONICERA SP 7
2.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MOST ESSENTIAL OILS 8
2.3 EFFECTS AND USES OF COMMON PLANT EXTRACTS 9
2.4 THE REPELLENCE EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON MOSQUITOES 10
3 METHODOLOGY 11
3.1 Sampling 11
3.2 Extraction 11
3.2.1 Procedure 12
3.3 Bio-assaying 13
3.3.1 Concentrations in ppm’s 13
3.3.2 Percentage concentrations 14
3.3.3 Bases 14
3.4 Testing 14
4 RESULTS 15
5 DISCUSSION 18
Preview of the essay: REPELLENCE ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF LONICERA SP AGAINST ANOPHELES GAMBIAE MOSQUITOES
About a century ago mosquitoes were confirmed to be carriers of malarial parasites, the most serious diseases in the tropics. Over 500 million clinical cases have been reported resulting in 2 million deaths annually. Despite the extensive efforts to combat malaria over the past six decades, it still remains a scourge in more than 90 countries inhabited by 40% of the world’s population. Hope for eradication of diseases has been frustrated by a number of challenges such as; emergence of drug and insecticide repellence strains of plasmodium parasites and anopheles mosquitoes respectively, global warming, re-introduction of vectors in areas initially free of malaria and environmental concerns. Alternatively control methods and materials that are effective against the target mosquito species, with minimum detrimental effects on the environment are needed. One of such methods is the application of selected botanical derivatives against the target mosquito species. This involves the use of plant derived repellents, insecticides, larvicides and insect growth regulators. The present study was designed to experiment if flowers of lonicera plant species, from high altitudes areas of Kenya (around Mt. Kenya) exhibit any mosquito repellence activity. The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation of the flowers. The crude extracts were then bio-assayed against the Anopheles Gambiae species of mosquito. The extracts at 10% exhibited an activity of 86% a figure bellow that of DEET ...
... to the 100ml mark. In the case of 10%, 10ml were measured, placed in a 100ml flask then filled up to the mark. The same case applies for the other percentages.
Note: there is no much difference between ppm’s and percentages. Take for example 100ppm. Mathematically it can be expressed as 100/1000000 which is equal to 0.01/100 = 0.01%.
The main bases used were pure petroleum jelly, wax and mineral oil. In this experiment 1ml of the extract was used in 10ml of the base. That is, only the 10% concentration was used in each case. This is because it’s at this concentration that DEET offers 100% activity in the solvent or base.
A blank/control was also ran in all cases
This was done using the cage test method. This encompasses the use of volunteers whereby the formulated extracts are smeared on one of the volunteers hand and the control on the other.
The hands are then exposed to caged and starved (about 6 hours) adult (4-5 days old) mosquitoes.
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